[ANSWERED 2022] During rounds Charles encounters a rare condition he has never personally seen, and only vaguely remembers hearing about in nursing school. He takes a few moments to prepare himself


Please complete ALL THREE of the exercises.

During rounds Charles encounters a rare condition he has never personally seen, and only vaguely remembers hearing about in nursing school. He takes a few moments to prepare himself by searching the Internet. That evening, he researches even further to treat, administer, and assess the patient safely. He searches clinical databases online and his own school textbooks. Most of the information seems consistent, yet some factors vary. Charles wants to provide the highest quality in patient safety.

  • 1. What should Charles do when he encounters information in two sources that is directly contradictory? Which resources are the most trusted? Which resources are the most accurate? What criteria should Charles use to identify credible resources to enhance his clinical practice?
  • 2. Practice extracting data from a database at the https://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/index.html webpage. Compare and contrast data from at least 2 different states based on incidence by gender and race/ethnicity.
  • 3. Visit the https://search.ahrq.gov/search?q=nursing&search_icon.x=0&search_icon.y=0 webpage.
    • Choose one of the guidelines and describe how it was developed and summarize the practice recommendations
    • How are these recommendations similar to or different from those contained in your textbook or those currently practiced in your clinical setting?
    • Choose a clinical topic and design a search strategy for searching an online database such as CINAHL or MEDLINE. Reflect on your search strategy, for example, what search terms did you initially use, what new terms did you discover as you searched, how did you limit/refine your search?

Please submit one APA formatted paper between 1000 – 1500 words, not including the title and reference page. The assignment should have a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

Expert Answer and Explanation

Credible Data in Nursing

Content taught in nursing school can help nurses do well in their practicum setting. However, some of the knowledge about nursing practice is often learned when one is on the ground practising. A good example is a case by Charles. Nursing practice is based on accurate facts, and without the facts, nurses cannot provide quality and safe clinical interventions to patients. When searching for information online, nurses should have knowledge about the organizations that produce accurate and factual data and the ones that always publish rumors. McGonigle and Mastrian (2017) argue that nurses should always rely on multiple sources of data to back up their study or clinical intervention. Using multiple sources increases the chances of one getting more accurate information about a specific topic. This assignment will complete three professional development exercises that provide insight into searching for information online.

Charles’s Situation

What Charles should do when he Encounters Two Contradicting Sources of Data 

After finding out that two sources provide contradicting information, Charles should conduct a further search to find more articles that discuss the same topic to compare their findings. Ghaddar, Valerio, Garcia and Hansen (2016) argue that an intervention can be more accurate and valid if more studies conducted by different researchers support its application in clinical practice. After finding the articles, Charles should compare the results and adapt the source that has been supported by the other three newly searched sources.

The Most Trusted Resources 

Nurses should be able to identify the most trusted sources to support their practices and clinical interventions. One of the most trusted resources that nurses can rely on is the ones published by professional organizations (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). Nurses can rely on the information published by the American Pediatric Association, the American Nurses Association, American Cancer Association, and many others. Another most trusted resource is state journals. The state journals always publish nurse researches that are peer-reviewed and approved by other nursing experts. Trusted resources can also be found in national journal databases, such as the National Institute of Health. Other nursing databases, such as EBSCOhost, PubMed database, and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) are also trusted resources that can be utilized by nurses.

Criteria to Identify Credible Sources 

The following criteria should be used by Charles to identify credible sources. The first criterion Charles should use to identify the sources of data is the authors’ credentials (Beck). The most reliable data is the one that is produced by an expert in that field. The second criterion is biased options. Charles should determine which authors between the two sources were more objective than the other. The third criterion is the currency and timeliness of the source. Information that has been published recently are more credible compared to the ones published five years ago.

Comparison and Contrast Between District of Columbia and Alaska Based on Incidence by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

Alaska is one of the states in the US. 47.7% of the population in the state are females. The non-Hispanic ethnic group consist of the larger population in the state. By 2017 93.2% of the population were Non-Hispanic. District of Columbia is also one of the states in the US. Similar to Alaska, Non-Hispanic race is the majority of the population consisting of 89.3%. These two states have both similar cancer incidence by gender and race. The following are the differences in incidence between the two states. Looking at both sexes, the age-adjusted incidence rates by sex is high in the District of Columbia compared to Alaska. In District of Columbia, the rate is 432.6 while in Alaska, the rate 413.0 (National Cancer Institute, 2017). Also, in terms of males, the age-adjusted incidence rates by sex are high in the District of Columbia compared to Alaska. The rate of age-adjusted incidence rates among the males in DC 464.5 while in Alaska is 426.1.

Considering females in both states, the age-adjusted incidence rates are high in DC compared to Alaska. The age-adjusted incidence rates among the females in Alaska is 406 while in DC is 413. In terms of race, the age-adjusted incidence rates by race/ethnicity among all races in DC is higher than in Alaska. In DC, the rate is 432.6 while in 413.0. However, the rate in White found in Alaska (401.0) is higher compared to DC (335.8). Also, the rate of White Non-Hispanic in Alaska (403.7) is higher than DC (352.9) (National Cancer Institute, 2017). Another difference between the two states is that the age-adjusted incidence rates by race/ethnicity Amer. Indian/Alaskan Native (includes Hispanic) in Alaska is high compared to DC. The only similarity between the two states is that the rate of the age-adjusted incidence rates by sex among the males in both states in higher.

Guideline Development and Practice Recommendation

The guideline that has been focused on in this part is one-time prevention developed by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ). The guideline was developed by AHRQ using tools that can be fixed in electronic medical record systems (EMRs) to prevent adverse events in nursing homes (AHRQ, 2017). The guideline recommends that nursing homes should work with EMRs vendors in a move to develop On-Time reports that can be accessed weekly. The second practice recommendation is that the organizations should ensure that they are populating reliable and valid reports. The last recommendation is that the facilities should commit themselves to continue observing the guideline after being implemented.

The Similarity between the Recommendations and those in My Practicum Setting

The recommendations highlighted above are so similar to those we are practising in my clinical setting. The first similarity is that both recommendations rely on valid and accurate data. In my clinical setting, decisions about clinical interventions are always made based on the findings of evidence-based researches (Thorne, Kirkham and MacDonald‐Emes, 2017). Another similarity is that both recommendations acknowledge the importance of reinforcement. In my care setting, the management always ensures that the staff and other stakeholders continue with the change after the implementation process.

Search Strategy

The clinical topic that was the focus of the search is “What are the effects of physical exercise on people with diabetes? The literature search was done via MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. The search terms that were included in the search are diabetic patients, physical activities, and patients with diabetes. During search reflection, physical exercises, diabetic people, people with type two diabetes, interventions of diabetes are some of the new search terms discovered. The search was limited by saying that only articles published less than five years ago to be included.


Charles can solve the contradictory problem by evaluating the two sources and search for other three to articles to compare the data. Overall, nurses should know how to differentiate credible and invalid sources of information when deciding on their interventions.


AHRQ’s Safety Program for Nursing Homes: On-Time Prevention. Content last reviewed November 2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

Beck, K. (n.d.). What Criteria Should Be Used to Evaluate the Credibility of a Source? Classroom. Retrieved from https://classroom.synonym.com/criteria-should-used-evaluate-credibility-source-5587.html

Ghaddar, S. F., Valerio, M. A., Garcia, C. M., & Hansen, L. (2016). Adolescent health literacy: the importance of credible sources for online health information. Journal of school health, 82(1), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00664.x

McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K. (2017) Nursing Informatics And The Foundation Of Knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1284121247

National Cancer Institute. (2017). State cancer profiles. Retrieved from https://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/quick-profiles/index.php?statename=alaska&spacingHiddenBox=&stateNotSelected=+++Please+select+a+state+to+proceed#t=2

Thorne, S., Kirkham, S. R., & MacDonald‐Emes, J. (2017). Interpretive description: a noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nursing knowledge. Research in nursing & health, 20(2), 169-177. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-240X(199704)20:2%3C169::AID-NUR9%3E3.0.CO;2-I

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