- Provide an example of how humor can be used to enhance learning in nursing education (either to patients, staff, or students).
- Observe a clinical nurse educator or preceptor. What strategies do they use that enhance student learning? What do they do that obstructs student learning?
- Describe a situation in which an educator used a creative or innovative approach to promote understanding of an idea or concept. Discuss how this may influence your teaching approaches.
- Consider an innovation that was recently implemented in a health care or academic setting that you are familiar with. Using the “Process of Innovation” (Box 5-1, p. 61, Bradshaw, Hultquist, & Hagler), describe how the innovation was introduced, from assessment through evaluation.
Length: 1500 – 1750 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions in a clear, concise manner.
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Expert Answer and Explanation
Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators
Learning presents an opportunity for nurses to acquire knowledge and skills, and learn how they can form collaborative relationships with colleagues and their patients. Nurses encounter situations in which they have to solve problems which require critical thinking, and collaboration. An example of such a scenario is a case in which a patient’s beliefs impede their treatment. For nurses to address this kind of issue, they need to be culturally competent, and have the necessary skills which they can use to build relationships with patients. This underscores the benefits of learning, and explains the reason why nurse educators adopt strategies focused on improving learning outcomes. While these strategies can help optimize learning outcomes, some strategies can hamper learning (Hu et al., 2021). To ensure that they improve learning outcomes, a preceptor should use innovative strategies which match learners’ needs. It is important to examine the effectiveness of the use of humor and other strategies in nurse education, and reflect on the recently implemented innovation.
The Use of Humor to Enhance Learning in Nursing
Humor can help patients to internalize a concept, and an example of how humor can be useful in this case is initiating a conversation that leads to humor by prompting the patient to answer certain questions. For instance, the educator can ask the patient the kind of food they eat, and start a conversation in which they share experiences about having to eat the food they dint like while growing up. Using a statement such as “My mother fed me with a lot of vegetables, forgetting that milkshake, our family cow, needed the vegetable more than I needed it.” Telling this joke may help relieve anxiety or tension which the patient might have due to the fear associated with interacting with providers. The joke can also help in learning by improving the patient’s interests and attention (Kuokkanen et al., 2016).
The story or the humor can then be tied to the patient education by letting the patient know how clinical interventions can benefit the patient however much such interventions may not appeal to the patient. The goal is to help the patient see sense in whatever they are being taught so that they can adopt new habits focused on improving their wellbeing. This can be achieved by relating the hate for vegetables to the hate for the treatments, and encouraging the patient to be take responsibility to manage their own health by eating healthy foods and complying with directives issued as part of their treatment (Tellakat, Boyd, & Pennebaker, 2019).
Strategies the Nurse Educator Use to Enhance Learning
In order to improve learning outcomes when educating nurses, the preceptor adopts various strategies. Simulation is an example of such strategies, and the preceptor uses it whenever they want their students to apply what they learn to address a clinical problem. It involves creating a scenario in which the student has to assume the role of a provider, and use the nursing knowledge to resolve a clinical issue. The nurse educator can accompany this strategy by debriefing sessions to help the students develop problem-solving skills (Cingl, 2018).
The concept mapping is the other strategy which the preceptor employs when training nurses. Using this particular strategy, the preceptor visually represents ideas to help the learner identify relationships, and understand concepts. For instance, they can use this strategy to explain the relationship between one’s physiological and psychological health. They also use this strategy to help learners to get to know the health care delivery process, and the procedures for addressing clinical problems (Cingl, 2018).
The preceptor, still, uses the case presentation as a strategy. This helps tests the student’s ability to apply what they learn when presented with problems. With this approach, the student is prompted to conduct clinical assessment, come up with the patient’s medical history, and develop a plan for treating the patient. The objective of this is to help identify the weaknesses in the student’s abilities, and assist them in learning new clinical skills (Bailo et al., 2019).
Furthermore, the preceptor use observation as a model for learning, and this strategy seems to help enhance learning outcomes. The method involves having the student observe as the preceptor performs a clinical task such as the using evidence to make decisions on health matters. However, students can also observe and learn from their peers (LeFlore & Thomas, 2016). This method helps improve learners’ practical skills.
The Educators’ Strategies which Obstruct Learning
While the preceptor adopts strategies which promote learning, they do certain things or use approaches which may hamper learning. For instance, they do not tailor instructional model to match each learner’s needs. A student may learn well when a given instructional technique is used, and this underscores the need to identify the student’s preferred method of learning. The nurse educator needs to consider this when teaching so that they can help each student achieve their potential for acquiring knowledge and skills. The educator also has the weakness of assessing learning outcomes, and they often assume that once they teach or coach a student, the latter will be able to remember of understand whatever they are taught. By failing to assess learning outcome, they cannot know how much the learners acquired in terms of the content.
Reflection on a Situation in which an Educator used Innovative Approach in Learning
I have encountered a situation in which an educator used role playing as an innovative strategy to help their students learn. As part of this strategy, they identified a clinical situation or a problem, assigned the students roles, and prompted them to act out and demonstrate how they would approach the scenario. The educator picked a problem that was relevant to what the students learned in the classroom. For example, they were required to manage a clinical problem in which the patient refused blood transfusion because of their faith. The innovative technique helped engage and motivation students, and prepare these learners for the real world clinical issues. It also helped boost their morale, and they developed interest in learning clinical skills (Van Veldhuizen, Oosterbeek, & Sonnemans, 2018). An important lesson is learned from this experience is that students’ motivation is needed for them to learn effectively well, and the lack of this motivation can compromise learning.
How the Learning Experience Can Influence my Personal Teaching Approaches
My experience of seeing how the nurse educator used role playing as a method of enhancing learning, can influence my personal teaching approach. Taking this experience in mind, I would use a method in which I encourage the students to participate in their own learning by engaging in simulation activities so that they will be able to develop skills, and manage clinical cases in a practical manner. My goal for using this method, still, is to help the students to be able to think critically, and manage problems. Based on this experience, still, I would have learners work with peers so that they can brainstorm and identify solutions to the problems they might face while tending to the needs of their patients (Van Veldhuizen et al., 2018). After observing how the technique can help an educator succeed, I would assign learners tasks, and have these students try to complete the tasks. My goal while undertaking these strategies is to give the students the opportunity to use their skills to manage health care problems (Rouleau et al., 2019).
Recently implemented Innovation
The 3-D printing is one of the recent innovations which are developed to enhance the delivery of medical care, and the technology is widely applied in the field of medicine. Using this innovation, for instance, biologists can reproduce the replica of the human cells, tissues and organs. The produced cells or organs can then be used in regenerative medicine. The technology is also useful when it comes to the development of the prosthetics which make it possible for people without limbs to perform functions such as walking. The technology is also helping revolutionize the production of the pharmacological agents by allowing drug companies to reproduce drugs. The use of the pacemakers to help normalize the cardiovascular process is a hallmark innovation. 3 D technology has helped transform the production of these devices, and with the availability of the devices, providers will be able to save the lives of patients with heart problems.
The Processes Involved in Introducing the Innovation
There are key steps involved in introducing an innovation. The first step involves the conceptualization of the idea, and it is during this stage that mobilization occurs. This is also the stage in which the future of the idea is explored. During the next, the team assesses whether the business idea is feasible, and it is the advocacy and screening stage. The experimentation is the third stage, and it is important in the sense that it helps the innovation team to identify whether the idea is sustainable. This is also the stage in which the team generates information which can help improve the idea. The idea is then commercialized, and this is the step before the implementation. Commercializing the idea is important in the sense that it helps clarify the idea and the goals which it seeks to achieve. Although the introduction finalizes with the implementation, the idea can be evaluated to determine its performance or inform changes which can help optimize performance.
There are various options for the preceptors and nurses when it comes to the method of teaching they can use. For instance, they can use humor to attract the learner’s attention, and for the preceptor in particular, using strategies such as simulation, the case presentation and observation can lead to better teaching outcomes for preceptors and students. However, not every strategy a preceptor uses would bring benefits in terms of learning. This is because certain strategies such as failing to assess students’ performance, and using a single teaching style for all the students, can hamper learning. When educating students, an instructor should use role-playing or other strategies which they feel may help students to learn well. Innovation constitutes a process that occurs in phases that begins with the idea and ends with implementation.
Bailo, L., Guiddi, P., Vergani, L., Marton, G., & Pravettoni, G. (2019). The patient perspective: investigating patient empowerment enablers and barriers within the oncological care process. Ecancermedicalscience, 13, 912.Doi: https://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2019.912.
Cingl, L. (2018). Social learning under acute stress. PLoS ONE 13(8), e0202335. Doi :https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202335.
Hu, J., Peng, Y., Chen, X., & Yu, H. (2021). Differentiating the learning styles of college students in different disciplines in a college English blended learning setting. PLoS ONE 16(5). e0251545. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251545.
Kuokkanen, L., Leino-Kilpi, H., Numminen, O., Isoaho, H., Flinkman, M., & Meretoja, R. (2016). Newly graduated nurses’ empowerment regarding professional competence and other work-related factors. BMC nursing, 15, 22.Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-016-0143-9.
LeFlore, J. L., & Thomas, P. E. (2016). Educational Changes to Support Advanced Practice Nursing Education. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing, 30(3), 187–190. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000201.
Rouleau, G., Gagnon, M. P., Côté, J., Payne-Gagnon, J., Hudson, E., Dubois, C. A., & Bouix-Picasso, J. (2019). Effects of E-Learning in a Continuing Education Context on Nursing Care: Systematic Review of Systematic Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed-Studies Reviews. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(10), e15118. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2196/15118.
Tellakat, M., Boyd, R.L., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2019). How do online learners study? The psychometrics of students’ clicking patterns in online courses. PLoS ONE 14(3). e0213863. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213863.
Van Veldhuizen, R., Oosterbeek, H., & Sonnemans, J. (2018). Peers at work: Evidence from the lab. PLoS ONE 13(2), e0192038.Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192038.
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