Please complete ALL THREE of the Professional Development exercises.
- Conduct a literature search to locate a nursing intervention delivered via telehealth. Summarize the findings of the literature review in the form of a table. This table should include the article title, database used, summarize the key points of article, summarize findings, Is this applicable to patient population
- Imagine that you are a public health informatics specialist and you and your colleagues have determined that the threat of a new strain of influenza indicates a need for a mass inoculation program. What public health data would have been used to determine the need for such a program and what data will be collected to determine the success of such a program?
- What are the ethical considerations related to interoperability and a shared electronic health record?
Please submit the literature review table and one APA formatted analysis for bullets 2 and 3 between 500-1000 words, not including the title and reference page. The assignment should have a minimum of two scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.
Expert Answer and Explanation
Summary of Findings of the Literature Review
|Article in APA format with hyperlink||Alkureishi, M. A., Lee, W. W., Lyons, M., Press, V. G., Imam, S., Nkansah-Amankra, A., … & Arora, V. M. (2016). Impact of electronic medical record use on the patient–doctor relationship and communication: a systematic review. Journal of general internal medicine, 31(5), 548-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2017.03.014|
|Article Title||Impact of electronic medical record use on the patient–doctor relationship and communication: a systematic review|
|Purpose of the article||The primary purpose of this study was” to systematically review the scientific literature regarding tele-rheumatology and draw conclusions about feasibility, effectiveness, and patient satisfaction” (Alkureishi et al., 2016).|
|Database used||Literature search was performed from three databases, and they include Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane online databases.|
|Summary of key points||The first key point in this study is that application of synchronous tele-rheumatology that need a live connection between the patients and their health providers, is meant to provide a cybernetic alternative to one-on-one patient-doctor visits. The authors believe that this nursing informatics can improve the health of patients by improving the rate at which the individuals can access healthcare over a long distance. Another key message in the study is that telemedicine can provide an opportunity for physicians and other healthcare providers to offer optimized care to patients with rheumatology by providing an extra means of offering care through video-teleconferencing and remote triage consultation visits. The last key message of this article is that the telehealth can be used to monitor patients’ treatment progress, tight-control of disease activity, and offering programs that can be self-managed.|
|Findings||The study found that improvement in health informatics and the need for health solutions that are up to date have initiated tele- rheumatology study, and this has led to an increase in RCTs about the topic, as a result, the quality of data about the topic has also increased. However, some bias methodologies have hindered the studies from being published.|
|Significance of the article to patient population||The article was significant in that it found that tele- rheumatology can improve quality of care in patients with rheumatic diseases.|
Health Informatics and Mass-Inoculation
Data Used to Determine Mass Inoculation
The essential data that will be used to determine whether mass inoculation is needed or not is epidemiological data. Looker et al. (2020) report that epidemiological data are significant for identifying healthcare problems and defects within the healthcare sector. Also, the data can be used to offer guidance to healthcare professionals on what to do to combat the problem. For instance, in the current Covid-19 pandemic, epidemiologists used epidemiological data to determine whether the virus was becoming a pandemic or not. Also, the data was used to identify ways on how to prevent the infection. The data can be used to answer the following five questions. The questions include what the name of the problem is, how much has it spread, where did the problem first reported, and who are the most vulnerable to the infection (Pedersen et al., 2017). After answering these five questions, one would determine whether inoculation is the right call or not.
Data to Determine Success of Mass Inoculation Program
After conducting the inoculation program, the people in charge of the project must evaluate the project to determine whether it was a success or not. In this case, three main data should be collected to conclude whether the vaccination program was successful or failure. The first data is morbidity data. This information will show the number of people currently suffering from the infection. If the number is lower 6 months after vaccination, then it can be concluded that the project is successful. The second data is the mortality rate. Here, the rate of deaths will be analyzed. The deaths should be reduced after inoculation for the project to be successful (Xu et al., 2020). The last data that should be collected is the rate of new infections. After inoculation, the new infections should be reduced gradually.
When developing any telehealth system or application, the IT experts should consider various ethical considerations. The first consideration is patient privacy and confidentiality. Evans (2016) reports that healthcare professionals should ensure that patient information remains private and confidential, even if stored in a shared EHR. Privacy means that patients are at liberty to provide only information they feel confrontable to share with medical professionals. They should not be forced to provide their private data. Also, privacy means that medical professionals should collect information relevant to the case. Confidentiality means that patient data should be shared with people who are authorized by the patients to handle their information. Information should not be shared with unauthorized personnel. Another ethical consideration is data security.
When developing EHR, developers should consider the security of the technology because it can threaten patient privacy. According to Lee (2017), when confidentiality of the information is availed to unauthorized without the patient’s consent, then his or her privacy will be breached. On that note, patient data should be protected when developing the system. Another ethical consideration is data inaccuracies. This consideration argues that medical professionals should ensure that they collect accurate data before storing the information in the system. Inaccurate data can lead to medical errors, and thus it should be handled amicably.
Tele-health has improved the quality of care. For instance, through the technology, medical professionals can monitor patients progress by means of video-conferencing. Epidemiological data can help care providers determine whether the vaccination should be done or not. The success of the program can be analyzed using morbidity, mortality, and new cases data. Ethical considerations when developing EHR are privacy and confidentiality, security breaches, and data inaccuracies.
Alkureishi, M. A., Lee, W. W., Lyons, M., Press, V. G., Imam, S., Nkansah-Amankra, A., … & Arora, V. M. (2016). Impact of electronic medical record use on the patient–doctor relationship and communication: a systematic review. Journal of general internal medicine, 31(5), 548-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2017.03.014
Evans, R. S. (2016). Electronic health records: then, now, and in the future. Yearbook of medical informatics, 25(S 01), S48-S61.
Lee, L. M. (2017). Ethics and subsequent use of electronic health record data. Journal of biomedical informatics, 71, 143-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2017.05.022
Looker, K. J., Welton, N. J., Sabin, K. M., Dalal, S., Vickerman, P., Turner, K. M., … & Gottlieb, S. L. (2020). Global and regional estimates of the contribution of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection to HIV incidence: a population attributable fraction analysis using published epidemiological data. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(2), 240-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30470-0
Pedersen, A. B., Mikkelsen, E. M., Cronin-Fenton, D., Kristensen, N. R., Pham, T. M., Pedersen, L., & Petersen, I. (2017). Missing data and multiple imputation in clinical epidemiological research. Clinical epidemiology, 9, 157. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5358992/
Xu, B., Gutierrez, B., Mekaru, S., Sewalk, K., Goodwin, L., Loskill, A., … & Zarebski, A. E. (2020). Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information. Scientific data, 7(1), 1-6. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41597-020-0448-0