Worldview analysis and personal inventory
Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:
- In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
- In 250-300 words, explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
- In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview: (a) What is ultimate reality? (b) What is the nature of the universe? (c) What is a human being? (d) What is knowledge? (e) What is your basis of ethics? (f) What is the purpose of your existence?
Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.
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Expert Answer and Explanation
Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care
While there exists a set of agreements, modern relativism has elicited a series of notions that contrasts with the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics. Expectedly, Christians view the world from the biblical perspectives; hence, their view of the world is integrated s whole and involve a series of biblical elements. According to the highlights by Jones (2016), Christian worldview is comprehensive and integral framework through which the world can be seen. One of the affirmations of Christian world view is the existence of a supreme being; God, who created the universe. Accordingly, the nature of the Moral God is that of absoluteness and unchanging, God hates evil and is all good. The bible works as a framework and guideline for moral judgments and upon which a completely and unambiguous ethics is formed. Further, ethical relativism is likely to lead to destruction (Nullens and Michener, 2014). The ideology of Christian world view of ethical considerations cannot be disjointed from the idea that the Christian ethics are drawn from God.
Understanding spirituality from the Christian viewpoint
The concept of spirituality has significantly gained prominence as far as the worldview is concerned (Christman et al., 2017). The concept is described as life under the influence of spirit and Christians will relate it to Gods spirit. Pointedly, the concept is not only limited to spiritual acts (including meditation) but implies the pursuit of a life structured along the sense of, ethical concepts and transcendence. Although spirituality has found its way (through nursing theories) in postmodern nursing, there exists a set of contrasts in the Christian trilogies and spirituality, challenging the view of highlights such as theism and supporting the view of pluralism and relativism.
Scientific developments have advanced modernism which has rejected a section of traditional worldviews (Nullens et al., 2014). Pointedly, the modernists perceive nature as a feature whose process can only be understood by natural laws. Postmodernism reflects the movements away from the underlying reliance on naturalism and rationality. Accordingly, postmodernism has substituted relativism with pantheism and rationalism for naturalism while maintaining syncretistic and monistic. A highlight into the postmodernism implication on healthcare is the preeminence of holistic treatment and self-healing. These arguments are said to be wellness oriented as opposed to disease centered.
Scientism and its Main Arguments
Scientism is a wide belief that the presumptions and research methods of natural and physical sciences are equally relevant to all other disciplines such as philosophy and social sciences (Christman et al., 2017). This highlight is based on the notion that natural science has dominance over all other worldview and that the approaches to natural science forms the only proper element in any philosophical argument. The term has been used in many references, a section has used it to describe that only those things in existence can be investigated through natural science. Another section has based their argument on the claims that humanities ought to adopt approaches to natural science or they should even be substituted with natural science.
The proponents of scientism argue that the frameworks of science can be enhanced so that something that has never been thought to be pertinent to science can be understood as a scientific component. (Nullens et al., 2014) noted that scientism is based on empirical arguments and is also a relative of positivism; the ideology that scientific knowledge is the only authentic set of knowledge and such knowledge can only be affirmed through scientific methods. According to (Jones et al., 2016), this can be referred to as a scientific worldview that involves natural explanation for all other phenomenon.
The arguments against scientism note that the view, in its strong sense, is aligned to self-annihilation and holds the view that only scientific claims are relevant. One of the primary critiques against scientism is directed towards the notion that its proponents, in their attempts to expound on the scientific boundaries, depend on their argument not merely scientific but also on philosophical ideologies and that scientism therefore is barely science proper. Another notable highlight in rejecting scientism is based on the fact that scientism merely “suffers” from a local as opposed to a universal fundamental problem while the results of natural science are justified, the deliverance of nonscientific beliefs are not (Jones et al., 2016).
Personal Reflection of Christian World
Reflectively, my worldview is aligned to the doctrines of Christianity and is founded upon the biblical notions with has God as the Supreme Being. This worldview acknowledges the place of Christ the way life and the general world experiences unfold.
The Ultimate Reality
While the quest for ultimate reality seeks to understand the deepest nature of things (Jones et al., 2016), God is the ultimate reality upon which all things unfold. The world possesses a set of dynamic highlights as the physical existence of the world is not a closed system that operates on entirety according to fixated natural laws. However, there exists an ultimate reality that extends beyond the physical and nonphysical dimensions of the world. While the physical universes is real and not an illusion; it is not all there is, it is a creation of a triune, through a supreme being who is not material in nature and the ultimate reality comprises both the spiritual and material elements.
The Nature of the Universe
The worldview presents a set of notions to the existence of the universe. The Christian worldview describes God as the ultimate creator of the world (ex nihilo) (Jones et al., 2016). Pointedly, the biblical analogy highlights that the world existed from the commands of God. However, He did not create it with all the confusion, initially, it was in order and clarity. Since the world was created in an open system, it is barely programmed hence the experiences (choices of human beings) and the will of Gods unfold each passing day.
Human beings are duality in nature; have the body and soul. This implies that human beings have material, physical and spiritual components that co-exist. Accordingly, human beings were created on the last day and were commanded to subdue the earth. This follows that human beings are an important creation and were specifically created in the image and likeness of God and as a result, they are a reflection of the glory of God. Accordingly, all human beings carry a certain level of dignity; this follows the criminalization of certain behaviors such as murder and abuse (Jones et al., 2016). Although human beings feel from the height of dignity after sinning against the creator. However, despite the sin, human beings are able to be reconnected back to God through Christ who restored the image and dignity of human beings.
Human knowledge is a significant highlight in the world view. Accordingly, human beings know God and the world around them. Arguably, the knowledge is the implication of God’s grace and all human beings have been given the capacity to learn and understand their environment. However, God is all knowing, hence there is a distinction between the capacity of God and human beings. The knowledge of human beings is revealed through the ability to work and connect with the environment while the knowledge of God is manifested through His creation.
The Basis of Ethics
Christian ethics are based on the character of God; however, the highest of human existence lead to moral relativism. In that regard, Christians find absolute truth and morality. There is clarity in the flow of right from wrong as it flows from the character of God.
The Purpose of Human Existence
Christians were created to fulfill God`s purpose; this follows that the Christian worldview is founded upon existence, personality, authority and character and the work of God. All events in our life should unfold and fulfill the plan of God. Duality of human beings provide coherence of human beings as free agents and life after death.
Consequently, as far as Christianity is concerned, only the Christian view can sufficiently accent for the design in nature, as it depicts the orderly nature, while the materialist merely posits chance. This world view argues that the Christian model, as depicted in the bible sufficiently fits in the notion of science than the evolutionary model. While some studies have noted a set of similarities in Christian world view and scientology, there exists a series of disjoints that have yet to agree. According to the Christian world view, only the Christian ideologies that focus on the spirituality and its comprehension of the nature of man and God can adequately address the unanswered questions and concerns of the world. Christian trilogy helps get in touch with realism as it allows recognition of individual sinfulness and ultimately the need for salvation. Accordingly, the greatest need of a human being is not self-esteem but acknowledging that human beings are sinners and have rebelled against God. Accordingly, spirituality is perceived to be relatively personal and underlies the presumption that all spiritual roles are equally true and justified. Similarly, the findings from the natural science are intersubjective, while the deliverance of nonscientific belief sources are not.
Christman, S. K., & Mueller, J. R. (2017). Understanding Spiritual Care: The Faith-Hope-Love Model of Spiritual Wellness. Journal of Christian Nursing, 34(1), E1-E7.
Jones, J. S. (2016). Being the chosen: exploring a Christian fundamentalist worldview. Routledge.
Nullens, P., & Michener, R. T. (2014). The Matrix of Christian Ethics: Integrating Philosophy and Moral Theology in a Postmodern Context. InterVarsity Press.
[ANSWERED] Create your own script for building a health history and use the Health History Template for guidance (consider the type of language you would use to help your patient be more comfortable).