Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention
Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr.
Case Study: Mr. C.
It is necessary for an RN-BSN-prepared nurse to demonstrate an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiological processes of disease, the clinical manifestations and treatment protocols, and how they affect clients across the life span.
Evaluate the Health History and Medical Information for Mr. C., presented below.
Based on this information, formulate a conclusion based on your evaluation, and complete the Critical Thinking Essay assignment, as instructed below.
Health History and Medical Information
Mr. C., a 32-year-old single male, is seeking information at the outpatient center regarding possible bariatric surgery for his obesity. He currently works at a catalog telephone center. He reports that he has always been heavy, even as a small child, gaining approximately 100 pounds in the last 2-3 years. Previous medical evaluations have not indicated any metabolic diseases, but he says he has sleep apnea and high blood pressure, which he tries to control by restricting dietary sodium. Mr. C. reports increasing shortness of breath with activity, swollen ankles, and pruritus over the last 6 months.
- Height: 68 inches; weight 134.5 kg
- BP: 172/98, HR 88, RR 26
- 3+ pitting edema bilateral feet and ankles
- Fasting blood glucose: 146 mg/dL
- Total cholesterol: 250 mg/dL
- Triglycerides: 312 mg/dL
- HDL: 30 mg/dL
- Serum creatinine 1.8 mg/dL
- BUN 32 mg/dl
Critical Thinking Essay
In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mr. C.\’s potential diagnosis and intervention(s). Include the following:
- Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. C.
- Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention.
- Assess each of Mr. C.\’s functional health patterns using the information given. Discuss at least five actual or potential problems can you identify from the functional health patterns and provide the rationale for each. (Functional health patterns include health-perception, health-management, nutritional, metabolic, elimination, activity-exercise, sleep-rest, cognitive-perceptual, self-perception/self-concept, role-relationship, sexuality/reproductive, coping-stress tolerance.)
- Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider.
- Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities. Describe what type of patient education should be provided to Mr. C. for prevention of future events, health restoration, and avoidance of deterioration of renal status.
- Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients for nonacute care and the type of multidisciplinary approach that would be beneficial for these patients. Consider aspects such as devices, transportation, living conditions, return-to-employment issues.
You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
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Expert Answer and Explanation
Case Study of Mr. C
Chronic diseases constitute the biggest causes of death for ageing individuals in the US and in the rest of the world. According to Textor (2017), they not only cause disability and death, but also lead to high expenditures in healthcare amounting to $3.8 trillion every year. In the case of Mr. C, a 32-year-old male patient who is single, he shows symptoms that suggest the presence of hypertension and obesity. A journey through the management of the condition helps to suggest the best action for any patient faced with a situation similar to that of Mr. C.
The objective data for Mr. C shows he has a moderately high bp, 3+ pitting edema in ankles and bilateral feet, cholesterol of 250,,/dL which is above the normal range of 200-239, BUN of 32mg/dl, which is also above the normal range of 7-20, and elevated serum creatinine of 1.8mg/dl (normal range is 0.74-1.35) (Textor, 2017). The client also showed the presence of weight management problems, and he has gained 100 pounds in 2-3 years and has always been heavy even as a child.
Besides, he has shortness of breath when he does activities, sleep apnea, and has been trying to manage pruritus for the past six months. The VS include Height: 68 inches; weight 134.5 kg, BP: 172/98, and HR 88, RR 26. The fasting blood glugose is 146mg/dl, the total cholesterol 250mg/dl, and the triglycerides amount to 312mg/dl.
Obesity Potential Health Risk
The presence of unstable levels of blood sugar is one of the key potential risks of obesity. For Mr. C, the primary risk factors is having too high levels of LDL, which shows that the body is not able to metabolize fat efficiently, and storage in the adipose tissues may result in excesses that cause obesity. Being overweight or obese can then serve as a primary cause of other conditions including but not limited to cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, and anxiety (Celano et al., 2018).
Functional Health Patterns
The occupation of Mr. C as a telephone attendant may be one of the causes of his obesity, because it is likely that he spends much of his work time dormant, and he does not exercise at all to keep fit. It could also be due to genetic factors as Mr. C says that he has been feeling overweight since a young age. Another potential problem that may account for the health behavior and characteristics of Mr. C. is the presence of poor nutrition, which could result in defective metabolism.
Also, at 32, he should possibly be having a girlfriend or a partner who would provide him with the necessary support when he encounters problems managing his illness. A partner could also help him become consistent in the medication by reminding him about some of the dosages that he could forget. Lastly, with a partner, he is more likely to efficiently cope with stress that is associated with the overweight problem, reducing the chances of other conditions.
The subjective data shows that Mr. C. is fully aware of his overweight problem and he asks if it is possible for him to have bariatric surgery. This option is always a hard one for the obese patients as it entails sacrificing a lot including behavior wise, health wise, and financial wise. Mr.’ C’s suffering from hypertension requires him to adjust his dietary consumption so as to include less sodium rich foods (Benjamin et al., 2019). A major challenge that he encounters is the fact that he is not well informed about his metabolic disease, whether it is diarrhea or constipation that is troubling him, and this also creates a challenge for him when deciding about dietary modification.
Mr. C should go for bariatric surgery at this time because it is likely to health him recover some of the primary symptoms of obesity. There are other interventions that could be applied to minimize the side effects of bariatric surgery, but the fact that the condition has already spread extensively means that the most appropriate intervention is the surgery (English et al., 2018).
End Stage Renal Disease, ESRD, is the last of the five stages of chronic kidney disease. At this point, the functioning of the kidney is 10-15%. Patients at this stage could encounter hard time removing waste in form of urine.
ESRD Contributing Factors and Prevention
The main contributing factor for ESRD is too low glucose levels. Patients who have abnormal blood pressure could also have ESRD because the blood is not able to filter efficiently in the glomerulus at the normal pressure (McCullough et al., 2019). The prevention of this condition is through early detection through screening and providing timely treatment.
Resources for ESRD
The patients of ESRD could opt for kidney dialysis where they improve the functioning of the kidney, and the process of filtration of blood is aided by machines. Unfortunately, there are diverse negative impacts of dialysis (Bowe et al., 2018). Other resources include the American Kidney Fund and Life rehabilitation options.
The management of Mr. C’s condition is best done by using bariatric surgery, which would be faster and more effective than other methods such as dietary change. Hypertension and high blood sugars are among the potential health risks that could make him have ESRD. However, proper utilization of the available resources could help promote his smooth recovery.
Benjamin, E. J., Muntner, P., Alonso, A., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P., … & American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2019). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 139(10), e56-e528. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659
Bowe, B., Xie, Y., Li, T., Yan, Y., Xian, H., & Al-Aly, Z. (2018). Particulate matter air pollution and the risk of incident CKD and progression to ESRD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 29(1), 218-230. https://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(16)37329-1/fulltext
Celano, C. M., Villegas, A. C., Albanese, A. M., Gaggin, H. K., & Huffman, J. C. (2018). Depression and anxiety in heart failure: a review. Harvard review of psychiatry, 26(4), 175. DOI: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000162
English, W. J., DeMaria, E. J., Brethauer, S. A., Mattar, S. G., Rosenthal, R. J., & Morton, J. M. (2018). American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery estimation of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in the United States in 2016. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 14(3), 259-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2017.12.013
McCullough, K. P., Morgenstern, H., Saran, R., Herman, W. H., & Robinson, B. M. (2019). Projecting ESRD incidence and prevalence in the United States through 2030. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 30(1), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018050531
Textor, S. C. (2017). Renal arterial disease and hypertension. Medical Clinics, 101(1), 65-79. https://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(16)37329-1/fulltext
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nrs 410 case study mr c
Obesity Case Study Examples: Real-Life Stories of Overcoming Obesity
Obesity is a serious health concern that affects millions of people around the world. It is a complex condition that can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. While it can be difficult to overcome, there are many people who have successfully managed to lose weight and improve their health. In this article, we will explore some real-life examples of individuals who have overcome obesity and achieved their weight loss goals.
Case Study 1: John’s Journey to a Healthier Life
John was a 45-year-old man who had been struggling with obesity for most of his life. At his heaviest, he weighed 350 pounds and suffered from a range of health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and sleep apnea. John had tried numerous diets and weight loss programs over the years, but nothing seemed to work.
One day, John decided that he needed to make a serious change in his life. He started by consulting with a nutritionist and a personal trainer. With their guidance, John developed a healthy eating plan and started a regular exercise routine. He also joined a support group for people who were trying to lose weight.
Over the course of a year, John lost 150 pounds and completely transformed his body. He no longer suffered from high blood pressure or diabetes, and his sleep apnea had disappeared. John’s journey was not easy, but he persevered and was able to achieve his weight loss goals.
Case Study 2: Sarah’s Struggle with Emotional Eating
Sarah was a 35-year-old woman who had been struggling with emotional eating for most of her life. Whenever she felt stressed or anxious, she would turn to food for comfort. As a result, Sarah had gained a significant amount of weight and was considered obese.
Sarah knew that she needed to address her emotional eating in order to lose weight and improve her health. She started by seeing a therapist who specialized in eating disorders. With the therapist’s help, Sarah was able to identify the triggers that led to her emotional eating and develop healthier coping mechanisms.
Sarah also started seeing a nutritionist who helped her develop a healthy eating plan. With these tools, Sarah was able to lose 80 pounds and significantly improve her health. She continued to work with her therapist and nutritionist to maintain her weight loss and manage her emotional eating.
Case Study 3: David’s Battle with Obesity-Related Health Issues
David was a 55-year-old man who had been overweight for most of his life. He had tried numerous diets and weight loss programs over the years, but nothing seemed to work. David also suffered from a range of health problems related to his obesity, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and joint pain.
One day, David’s doctor told him that he needed to make a serious change in his life in order to avoid serious health complications. David decided to undergo bariatric surgery, which involved reducing the size of his stomach to limit his food intake.
After the surgery, David lost 120 pounds and completely transformed his body. He no longer suffered from high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or joint pain. David’s surgery was a major decision, but it ultimately allowed him to improve his health and quality of life.
Case Study 4: Mary’s Success with Bariatric Surgery
Mary was a 40-year-old woman who had been struggling with obesity for most of her adult life. She had tried various diets and weight loss programs, but was never able to achieve lasting results. Mary also suffered from a range of health problems related to her obesity, including high blood pressure and sleep apnea.
One day, Mary decided that she needed to make a drastic change in her life. She consulted with her doctor, who recommended that she undergo bariatric surgery. Mary was hesitant at first, but ultimately decided to go through with the procedure.
After the surgery, Mary lost over 100 pounds and completely transformed her body. She no longer suffered from high blood pressure or sleep apnea, and her overall health improved dramatically. Mary’s decision to undergo bariatric surgery was not an easy one, but it ultimately allowed her to achieve her weight loss goals and improve her health.
Case Study 5: Jake’s Lifestyle Change for a Better Future
Jake was a 25-year-old man who had been struggling with obesity for most of his life. He had tried various diets and weight loss programs over the years, but was never able to achieve lasting results. Jake also suffered from a range of health problems related to his obesity, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
One day, Jake decided that he needed to make a serious change in his life. He started by consulting with a nutritionist and a personal trainer. With their help, Jake developed a healthy eating plan and started a regular exercise routine.
Over the course of a year, Jake lost 80 pounds and completely transformed his body. He no longer suffered from high blood pressure or high cholesterol, and his overall health improved significantly. Jake’s decision to make a lifestyle change was not easy, but it ultimately allowed him to achieve his weight loss goals and improve his health for the long term.
Obesity is a serious health concern that affects millions of people worldwide. While it can be difficult to overcome, there are many real-life examples of individuals who have successfully managed to lose weight and improve their health. From John’s journey to a healthier life, to Sarah’s struggle with emotional eating, to David and Mary’s success with bariatric surgery, and to Jake’s lifestyle change for a better future, these case studies demonstrate that with determination and the right support, it is possible to overcome obesity and achieve lasting weight loss.
BMI Calculator: An Essential Tool to Monitor Your Health
Do you want to know if your weight is within the healthy range? Are you curious about your body mass index (BMI)? A BMI calculator is an easy-to-use tool that can give you a quick estimate of your BMI. In this article, we will discuss what a BMI calculator is, how to use it, and why it is important for your health.
What is a BMI Calculator?
BMI stands for body mass index, which is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. A BMI calculator is a tool that can calculate your BMI by simply entering your weight and height. The result will give you an estimate of whether you are underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese.
How to Use a BMI Calculator?
Using a BMI calculator is easy and straightforward. You only need to enter your weight in pounds or kilograms and your height in feet and inches or centimeters. Once you have entered your weight and height, the BMI calculator will provide you with your BMI number, which you can use to determine your weight status.
Why is BMI Important?
Knowing your BMI is important because it can give you an idea of whether you are at a healthy weight or not. Having a high BMI can put you at risk for many health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. On the other hand, having a low BMI can also have negative health effects, such as weakened immune system and increased risk of malnutrition.
What is a Healthy BMI Range?
The healthy BMI range is between 18.5 and 24.9. If your BMI falls within this range, you are considered to be at a healthy weight. If your BMI is below 18.5, you are considered underweight, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
Limitations of BMI Calculator
Although BMI is a useful tool for determining body fat, it has its limitations. For example, BMI does not take into account muscle mass, bone density, and body composition. Therefore, a person with a high muscle mass may have a high BMI, but they may not be overweight or obese. Similarly, a person with a low muscle mass may have a low BMI, but they may have a high percentage of body fat.
How to Interpret Your BMI Results?
Once you have calculated your BMI, you can interpret the results based on the following categories:
- Underweight: BMI less than 18.5
- Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
- Overweight: BMI between 25 and 29.9
- Obese: BMI 30 or higher
If your BMI falls in the overweight or obese categories, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to improve your health. These changes may include increasing physical activity, adopting a healthy diet, and reducing sedentary behavior.
How to Maintain a Healthy BMI?
Maintaining a healthy BMI requires a combination of healthy eating habits and regular physical activity. You can maintain a healthy weight by following these tips:
- Eat a balanced diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats.
- Limit your intake of processed foods, sugary drinks, and high-fat foods.
- Engage in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming.
- Avoid prolonged sitting or sedentary behavior.
- Get enough sleep and manage stress levels.
BMI Calculator for Children
BMI calculators are not just for adults; there are also BMI calculators specifically designed for children and teenagers. These calculators use age and gender-specific growth charts to determine BMI percentiles.
A BMI percentile between 5th and 85th is considered healthy for children and teenagers. A BMI percentile below the 5th percentile is considered underweight, while a BMI percentile above the 85th percentile is considered overweight.
It is important to note that BMI is not a perfect measure of body fat for children and teenagers, as their body composition changes as they grow. Therefore, it is recommended to discuss BMI results with a healthcare provider, who can interpret the results based on the child’s age, gender, and growth pattern.
Moreover, BMI is just one of the many factors that determine a child’s health status. Other factors, such as physical activity, diet, and family history, should also be taken into account when assessing a child’s health.
In summary, BMI calculators for children can be useful tools for monitoring a child’s weight status. However, BMI should be interpreted in the context of the child’s overall health and growth pattern, and any concerns should be discussed with a healthcare provider.