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ANSWERED!! Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse

DQ 1

Child Abuse

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age yearsNSWERED!!. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuseDescribe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

DQ 2

Physical Assessment

Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult. In addition to describing the similar/different aspects of the physical assessment, explain how the nurse would offer instruction during the assessment, how communication would be adapted to offer explanations, and what strategies the nurse would use to encourage engagement.


DQ 1

Child Abuse and Maltreatment

Child abuse among school-age children is a global problem with life-long consequences. School-age children experience various types of violence, including sexual abuse, physical abuse, and psychological mishandling. Van der Kolk (2017) describes child sexual abuse has a sexual act between a child and an adult, including intercourse, rape, oral sex, sodomy, and penetration. Also, physical child abuse results from all types of physical aggression such as beating, pinching, severe physical punishment and kicking (Van der Kolk, 2017). Kleinman (2015) specifies that emotional or psychological child abuse includes attitude and behavior, interfering with a child’s social development and mental health. Thus, emotional violations can range from a simple verbal insult to severe punishment.

In addition, numerous warning signs are indicating different types of child abuse. For example, the deterrent signs of sexual child abuse include fearing of a particular member of the family or a person, seductiveness, and excessive violence. Van der Kolk (2017) also states that signs indicating physical child abuse include fearing of adults, burns, and bites in the shape of objects, and child fear to go home. Kleinman (2015) mentions that the nurse can find if a child experiences any abuse by examining his or her injury, depression, anxiety, dissociative illnesses, and personality disorders.

Moreover, any individuals can report child abuse cases in my state. The person is required to give a complete and honest account of the occurrence that he or she has observed, and which has led to suspicion of child abuse event (Kleinman, 2015). The report is received by Child Protective Services (CPS) who assess it and determine if it meets the legal definition of child abuse. CPS also examines the state of the event reported to them by taking any legal actions against the abuser. Lastly, the key responsibilities of the nurse on reported child abuse being suspected are three. The roles include informing the law enforcement such as CPS about the abuse, reporting the case to physician or nurse practitioner, and connecting the victim to counseling services.


Kleinman, P. K. (2015). Diagnostic imaging of child abuse. Cambridge University Press.

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2017). This issue: child & victimization. Psychiatric Annals, 35 (5), 374-378.

DQ 2

Physical Assessment

When carrying out a physical assessment of both a child and an adult, the foremost thing is to collect as much information from the patient as possible through observation of the physical attributes. For both, checking for the vital signs, blood pressure, and temperature is done during physical assessment. The normal parameters for both however vary, with the distinction taken into consideration during assessment. Cardiac assessment is however, different for both, due to the level of heart development and prevalent issues which might be there for adults and not in children. Analysis of the airway and breathing patterns also vary for the two groups.

When offering instruction, the nurse is required to first consider the age of the patient, social, education, and cultural background of the patient. After learning of these attributes, a proper communication strategy can be formulated to provide instruction in a manner that can be understood. The instructions offered should also be done in a respectful manner. When carrying out the assessment, the nurse should first introduce themselves to create a good rapport with the patient. Two-way communication, which includes patient’s feedback is an essential aspect in collecting as much relevant data from the patient as possible (O’Hagan et al., 2014). When communicating, choosing a language that is simple and can be easily understood can help the patient feel at ease and be more engaging.

For children, the nurse would opt to be less threatening by showing a more friendly face and language used. The nurse should try as much as possible to reduce the stress level of the child. Being honest when communicating with the child can also help them to be more responsive and calmer during the assessment. For adults, explaining to them using simple and understandable words on the procedures done during assessment can help them to be more engaging (Dempsey, Reilly & Buhlman, 2014). Encouragement during the procedure can also help to improve both child and adult patient engagement.


Dempsey, C., Reilly, B., & Buhlman, N. (2014). Improving the patient experience: real-world strategies for engaging nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration44(3), 142-151.

O’Hagan, S., Manias, E., Elder, C., Pill, J., Woodward‐Kron, R., McNamara, T., … & McColl, G. (2014). What counts as effective communication in nursing? Evidence from nurse educators’ and clinicians’ feedback on nurse interactions with simulated patients. Journal of advanced nursing70(6), 1344-1355.

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