Fill in order details

  • Submit your instructions
    to writers for free!

Chat with the writer

  • Chat with preferred expert writers
  • Request a preview of your paper
    from them for free

Editing

  • Project edited by the quality evaluation department

Download Your Completed Project

  • Download the completed project from your account or have it sent to your email address

ANSWERED!! Kevin worked for 10 years at a uranium mine excavating uranium for a nearby nuclear power plant. Now, 25 years later, he has small cell lung cancer. Kevin is anorexic and has lost a considerable amount of weight

Integrate knowledge of advanced physiology and pathophysiology across the lifespan with the clinical implications for the advanced practice nurse. Case Study: Cell Biology and Genetics
Below is a case study. Be sure to integrate your knowledge of advanced physiology and pathophysiology across the lifespan with the clinical implications for the advanced practice nurse.
Case Study Posting Requirements
1. Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed. 2. Cite at least three sources; journal articles, textbooks, or evidenced-based websites to support the content. 3. All sources must be within five years. 4. Do not use .com, Wikipedia, or up-to-date, etc., for your sources.
Case Study 3 
Kevin worked for 10 years at a uranium mine, excavating uranium for a nearby nuclear power plant. Now, 25 years later, he has small cell lung cancer. Kevin is anorexic and has lost a considerable amount of weight. His muscles are wasting, and he is weak. He tries to move around the house throughout the day but tires easily. It has been difficult for him to access care, and the treatment for his cancer is just starting.
1. With the ongoing exposure to the ionizing radiation, DNA damage occurred. Outline the three stages of carcinogenesis that occurred after his exposure to radiation.
2. Kevin is normally a fit and active man, and his wife often commented on how much food he used to eat after a day at mine. Why would there be muscle wasting and weight loss now? Explain your answer using your knowledge of the metabolic changes seen with cancer.
3. In some cancer patients, muscle weakness may result from the production of onconeural antigens. Describe the effects of these antigens. What form would this process likely take in Kevin’s situation?

ANSWER

Case Study: Cell Biology and Genetics

Radiation-induced cancer accounts for up to 10% of invasive cancers. The exposure to excessive ionizing radiation increases future incidences of cancer, especially leukemia (Giridhar et al., 2015). Carcinogenesis is the process through which a normal cell becomes transformed into a cancerous cell. Upon exposure to the radiation, there are three stages through which this carcinogenesis occurs. These are initiation, promotion, and progression. After working for ten years in a uranium mine, Kevin, 25 years later develops small cell lung cancer. He also has many other conditions, including anorexia, muscle weakness, and weight loss. The metabolic changes associated with cancer affect his appetite, and even the muscle weakness could be as a result of some onconeural antigens that are associated with cancer.

Radiation may produce carcinogenic changes in body cells through the following mechanisms. First, mutations are active in inducing carcinogenesis (Giridhar et al., 2015). These include alterations in the structure of single genes or chromosomes. Secondly, exposure to radiations can result in gene expression changes, not necessarily with mutations. Lastly, these radiations can result in oncogenic viruses which may form neoplasia. Different mechanisms may play a significant role in successive carcinogenesis stages, and these may or may not be mutually exclusive. The three processes in carcinogenesis- initiation, promotion, and progression, take place successively, and sometimes the transition from one stage to the next may not be clear. It should also be noted that exposure to chemical carcinogens and radiations are dose-dependent (Giridhar et al., 2015). Some may require one to be exposed for a long time before inducing cancer. In the case of Kevin, ten years of exposure to standard uranium must have reached the threshold to start the initiation process. After this stage, most tumors are highly influenced by other noncarcinogenic factors, and people are likely to confuse some of these to be primary initiators. Very often, tumors become increasingly malignant with stepwise outgrowth, and this leads to the rise of populations and subpopulations of tumor cells. The promotion stage involves a synergistic interaction of the initial radiation and several promoting agents. These developing agents decrease the latent period and increase the incidence of cancer (Giridhar et al., 2015). Different promoting agents may act in varying phases of promotion. The final stage, tumor progression involves the increase in the malignant properties in a cancerous cell. This may occur in various ways such as genetic instability.

Cancer patients are always associated with several metabolic changes that affect their food consumption and assimilation and hence contribute to weight loss. In the case of Kevin, he is usually a fit and active man, yet he still has massive weight loss. These changes in Kevin may be due to the altered metabolism associated with cancer cells (Eales, Hollinshead, & Tennant, 2016). The Warburg effect is one of the most widely known abnormalities in cancer cells, which denote an increase in glycolysis with or without oxygen (Dong et al., 2016). Essential tumor genes such as c-Myc and p53 are some of the critical regulators of metabolism (Dong et al., 2016). Tumorigenesis is linked to various metabolic enzymes such as pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase. The molecular tumorogenic mechanisms are diverse and complex, but it is clear that the fitness encountered by Kevin may be temporal, as muscle wasting effects are linked to the different tumor genes and enzymes (Dong et al., 2016). The increase in glycolysis, for instance, is one of the key reasons why the body, when it doesn’t have enough glucose, utilizes energy from proteins and body fat, and hence resulting in muscle and weight loss (Eales, Hollinshead, & Tennant, 2016).

In some of the cancer patients, muscle wasting may be purely as a result of onconeural antigens or paraneoplastic antigens (Dik et al., 2018). Naturally, existing tumor immunity is often as a result of the exposure to onconeural antigens. These are proteins that are only exposed by tissues of a neuron, but in carcinogenesis, they can be detected in tumors that are outside the nervous system. Neuron tissues are immunopriviliged zones, and an autoimmune response is highly likely to occur following the expression of the proteins in tumor cells. This manifestation then results in the generation of autoantibodies or specific cytotoxic T-cells (Corsini et al., 2016).

In many cases, such immune responses lead to paraneoplastic syndromes. These include but are not limited to neurological syndromes, where muscle wasting can also be part of these. Also, the antigens work mostly with the cancer-retina antigens, and they are the reason why cancer patients are prompt to blindness and other optical conditions (Corsini et al., 2016). In Kevin’s situations, these onconeural antigens must have taken the form of muscle wasting, and leading to his current position. Unfortunately, it is hard to eliminate these antigens, but symptoms are resulting from their effects can be corrected.

References

Corsini, E., Gaviani, P., Chiapparini, L., Lazzaroni, M., Ciusani, E., Bisogno, R., … & Bernardi, G. (2016). Intrathecal synthesis of onconeural antibodies in patients with paraneoplastic syndromes. Journal of neuroimmunology290, 119-122.

Dik, A., Strippel, C., Mönig, C., Golombeck, K. S., Schulte-Mecklenbeck, A., Wiendl, H., … & Melzer, N. (2018). Onconeural antigen spreading in paraneoplastic neurological disease due to small cell lung cancer. Oxford medical case reports2018(7), omy034.

Dong, G., Mao, Q., Xia, W., Xu, Y., Wang, J., Xu, L., & Jiang, F. (2016). PKM2 and cancer: The function of PKM2 beyond glycolysis. Oncology letters11(3), 1980-1986.

Eales, K. L., Hollinshead, K. E. R., & Tennant, D. A. (2016). Hypoxia and metabolic adaptation of cancer cells. Oncogenesis5(1), e190.

Giridhar, P., Mallick, S., Rath, G. K., & Julka, P. K. (2015). Radiation induced lung injury: prediction, assessment and management. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev16(7), 2613-7.

What our customers say
_____

  • Essay was good; although need to do few amendments and add few things, overall it was good and justify money paid.

     

    FinanceProfessional assignment help services
  • it was good
    it has introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion as well
    it was really helpful

    PsychologyProfessional assignment help services
  • Great service. Always provide quick response and best online support and have very very less plagiarism.

    EconomicsProfessional assignment help services
  • Thanks for giving my assignment on time. I really appreciated the work done. This keeps me submitting new assignments.

    HealthcareProfessional assignment help services
  • Thank you my writer. Good job and I really enjoy you fast response. I definitely will recommend to my friends.

     

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • Thanks for giving my assignment on time. I really appreciated the work done. This keeps me submitting new assignments.

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • Great service. Always povide quick response and best online support and have very very less plagiarism.

     

    Business LawProfessional assignment help services
  • Good writer that fulfil all the requirements that i have been told to the writer. The writer even called to discuss everything with me to continue my assighnment

     

    FinanceProfessional assignment help services
  • Great work on time delivered for work, good understanding well prepared. References was well written in APA format

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • The writer had clear communication and ensured to give me a brief overview of how my assignment was going to be structured including an average of the words used in each section in order to avoid going over the limit. Didn't need to escalate even once because the quality of the work was in line with the Standard quality that I chose.

    AccountingProfessional assignment help services
  • It was okay. Not bad, could do better! But marks were good, feedback was also good, so overall 4/5

     

    ProgrammingProfessional assignment help services
  • The solution was excellent and all the requirements was taken into consideration.

    ChemistryProfessional assignment help services
  • On time and the assisgment is veryy well done. thank you very much. i'm happy and this is not the last time of me getting help

     

    ManagementProfessional assignment help services
  • This is solid work thankyou for all the help with this PowerPoint; I m curious what grade ill get in it

     

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • Great Work Completed in under a Hour thank you so much. I got a 100 percent on my assignment.

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • I got 87%. Thanks for that. I am quite satisfied as You reviewed and changed when I ask for some changes.

     

    ChemistryProfessional assignment help services
  • I got a Distinction in this course. Highly satisfied with the expert work and effort.

     

    Business LawProfessional assignment help services
  • I am very happy with this assignment. Thank you very much to the expert who has done this for me.

     

    Business LawProfessional assignment help services
  • So far this is the highest marks I got for an assignment done by you guys. I got 42/50 for this assignment. The exact feedback from my lecturer was:
    Introduction: Good introduction to assisted dying, especially in relation to laws within Australia. Introduction was a little too long.
    Aim or Purpose: Good purpose but improved grammar needed. Good use of PICO.
    Method: The method, while explained is very out of order. Try to write a methods section that can be followed in a step by step fashion

    NursingProfessional assignment help services
  • You did a good job just some details were missed enough attention. To be honest, you did much better job than the other websites. I would like to have more experience with you then I can give you more detailed feedback.

     

    ManagementProfessional assignment help services

You cannot copy content of this page