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SOLVED!! A 15-year-old male reports dull pain in both knees. Sometimes one or both knees click, and the patient describes a catching sensation under the patella. In determining the causes of the knee pain

The body is constantly sending signals about its health. One of the most easily recognized signals is pain. Musculoskeletal conditions comprise one of the leading causes of severe long-term pain in patients. The musculoskeletal system is an elaborate system of interconnected levers that provides the body with support and mobility. Because of the interconnectedness of the musculoskeletal system, identifying the causes of pain can be challenging. Accurately interpreting the cause of musculoskeletal pain requires an assessment process informed by patient history and physical exams.

In this Discussion, you will consider case studies that describe abnormal findings in patients seen in a clinical setting.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following specific case studies for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
  • Your Discussion post should be in the Episodic/Focused SOAP Note format rather than the traditional narrative style Discussion posting format. Refer to Chapter 2 of the Sullivan text and the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template in the Week 5 Learning Resources for guidance. Remember that all Episodic/Focused SOAP notes have specific data included in every patient case.

Case 3: Knee Pain

15yearold male reports dull pain in both knees. Sometimes one or both knees click, and the patient describes a catching sensation under the patella. In determining the causes of the knee pain, what additional history do you need? What categories can you use to differentiate knee pain? What are your specific differential diagnoses for knee pain? What physical examination will you perform? What anatomic structures are you assessing as part of the physical examination? What special maneuvers will you perform?

With regard to the case study you were assigned:

  • Review this week\’s Learning Resources, and consider the insights they provide about the case study.
  • Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient in the case study you were assigned.
  • Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient\’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
  • Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.

 

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel\’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

  • Chapter 4, “Vital Signs and Pain Assessment” (Previously read in Week 6)
  • Chapter 22, “Musculoskeletal System”This chapter describes the process of assessing the musculoskeletal system. In addition, the authors explore the anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system.

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Chapter 22, “Lower Extremity Limb Pain” This chapter outlines how to take a focused history and perform a physical exam to determine the cause of limb pain. It includes a discussion of the most common tests used to assess musculoskeletal disorders.

Chapter 24, “Low Back Pain (Acute)” The focus of this chapter is the identification of the causes of lower back pain. It includes suggested physical exams and potential diagnoses.

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

  • Chapter 2, \”The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam\” (\”Muscle Strength Grading\”) (Previously read in Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5)
  • Chapter 3, \”SOAP Notes\”This section explains the procedural knowledge needed to perform musculoskeletal procedures.

Note: Download this Student Checklist and Abdomen Key Points to use during your practice abdominal examination.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Musculoskeletal system: Student checklist. In Seidel\’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Seidel\’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Musculoskeletal system: Key points. In Seidel\’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Seidel\’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Katz, J. N., Lyons, N., Wolff, L. S., Silverman, J., Emrani, P., Holt, H. L., … Losina, E. (2011). Medical decision-making among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites with chronic back and knee pain: A qualitative study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 12(1), 78–85.

This study examines the medical decision making among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. The authors also analyze the preferred information sources used for making decisions in these populations.

Smuck, M., Kao, M., Brar, N., Martinez-Ith, A., Choi, J., & Tomkins-Lane, C. C. (2014). Does physical activity influence the relationship between low back pain and obesity? The Spine Journal, 14(2), 209–216. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2013.11.010

Shiri, R., Solovieva, S., Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K., Telama, R., Yang, X., Viikari, J., Raitakari, O. T., & Viikari-Juntura, E. (2013). The role of obesity and physical activity in non-specific and radiating low back pain: The Young Finns study. Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, 42(6), 640–650. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2012.09.002

Document: Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Exemplar (Word document)

Document: Episodic/Focused SOAP Note Template (Word document)

Optional Resource

LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.

  • Chapter 13, “The Spine, Pelvis, and Extremities”

Knee Pain Episodic/Focused SOAP Note

Patient Information:

JD is a 15-year-old African American Male.

S.

CC “Dull pain in both knees for four days.”

HPI: JD is a 15-year-old African American Male who came to the hospital with complaints of dull pain in his both knees for the three days. He reports that he sometimes feels catching sensation under the patella and both knees often click. The pain started after playing basketball tournament three days ago. He has not applied any medication. The severity of the pain I 8/10.

Current Medications: No medications

Allergies: No allergies.

PMHx: No history of major medical conditions. Pneumonia and influenza vaccines are up to date.
Soc Hx: Denies tobacco or alcohol use. He is the only child in a middle-class family. He loves playing basketball.

Fam Hx: He is the only child in a family of three. Both parents are alive and healthy. Grandfather died of depression. He committed suicide. Grandmother is alive as has type II diabetes.

ROS:

GENERAL:  No fatigue, weight loss, or fever.

HEENT:  Eyes:  No vision problems. Ears, Nose, Throat:  No hearing problem, sneezing, runny nose, congestion, or sore throat.

SKIN:  No rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR: No heart problems.

RESPIRATORY:  No breathing problems.

MUSCULOSKELETAL:  Knee pain.

HEMATOLOGIC:  No anemia or bleeding.

O.

Physical exam:

Constitutional: General Appearance: Healthy adult with moderate distress. A+O+3, mucous membranes moist, flushed, answers questions properly. VitalsBP 122/90; P 57; R 20; T 36.3; W 58kgs; H 157cm.

HEENT: Head: NC/AT. Eyes:  Pupils are PERRL, extraocular movements intact; conjunctivae pink. Ears: Hearing intact, normal external appearance. Nose: Appears normal, clear mucus. Mouth: The are in good shape. Throat: No lesions or inflammation of the tonsils.

Skin: Normal color for ethnicity, dry, warm, with no rashes or lesions.

Cardiovascular: S1, S2 with regular rhythm and rate. No heart sounds.

Lungs: Chest walls symmetric. Lungs clear and bilateral. Regular respirations.

Knee: MRI shows ACL tear in both knees.

Diagnostic results: Diagnosis for knee musculoskeletal can be done using MRI or X-ray (Ball et al., 2019). The authors note that X-ray cannot see the ligaments, and in this case, MRI is recommended.

  1. X-ray: Pending
  2. MRI: Pending

A.

Differential Diagnoses

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury. The primary diagnosis for this ACL injury. ACL injury is a sprain or tear ACL, one of the major ligaments in the knee (Korakakis et al., 2019). The injury occurs mostly in sportspersons. The disease causes pain in the knee. It has been included as the primary diagnosis because the patient is a sportsperson and recently got injured during a game.
  2. Knee locking: Characteristics of knee locking include catching sensation, swelling of the affected knee, and pain with extension (Lee, Nixion, Chandratreya & Murray, 2017). The disease is not a primary diagnosis because the patient is no swelling in the knee.
  3. Osteochondritis Dissecans: OCD is a joint condition that occurs when blood is not enough in the end of the bone. It also causes pain in the knee, and that is why it has been included in the diagnosis.
  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: JIA is the swelling of the joints. The disease occurs before a kid reaches 16 years (Ramanan et al., 2017). It causes joint pain, and that is why it has been included in the diagnosis.
  5. Repeated kneecap dislocation: Repeated patellar subluxation is the continued instability of the patellar, which causes knee pain.

References

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel\’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Korakakis, V., Saretsky, M., Whiteley, R., Azzopardi, M. C., Klauznicer, J., Itani, A., … & Malliaropoulos, N. (2019). Translation into modern standard Arabic, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties’ evaluation of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in Arabic-speaking athletes with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. PloS one, 14(6), e0217791. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217791

Lee, P. Y. F., Nixion, A., Chandratreya, A., & Murray, J. M. (2017). Synovial plica syndrome of the knee: a commonly overlooked cause of anterior knee pain. The Surgery Journal, 3(1), e9. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1598047

Ramanan, A. V., Dick, A. D., Jones, A. P., McKay, A., Williamson, P. R., Compeyrot-Lacassagne, S., … & Beresford, M. W. (2017). Adalimumab plus methotrexate for uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(17), 1637-1646. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1614160

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